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For any activity on the mountain we must choose a garment that keeps our body dry avoiding both the condensation of our sweat as rain and snow cale us, besides being sheltered to combat low temperatures. This is where the theory of the three layers arises in that only the combination of three pieces of clothing will create a small microclimate to protect our body from the weather and our sweat, and avoid feeling uncomfortable. The best thing about this theory is that it can be applied to any type of sport that we make, whether hiking, mountaineering, rock climbing, skiing, snowboarding, mountain biking, etc; or even motorcycling, as our aim is to protect us from the weather.
Mountaineer with many clothes
Maintain our body temperature stable facilitate the practice of any sport mountain we decide to make, therefore, choose the appropriate attire to face the diverse climate that offers the mountain is a challenge because it forces us to be prepared for the heat, wind, rain, snow, cold temperatures and even our sweat.
When performing any aerobic or anaerobic exercise, the body increases your body temperature. The cooling mechanism having body is transpiration, that is, evaporation of water through the skin, known as sweat. Our goal is to stay dry at all times, and this sweat can make our clothes soak causing us a feeling of discomfort and cold much worse than if we empapáramos because of the rain. You can read more about the subject on thermal sensation and causes heat loss.
Knowing this, we should choose clothing that keeps our body dry avoiding both the condensation of our sweat as rain and snow cale us, besides being sheltered to combat low temperatures. This is where the theory of the three layers arises in that only the combination of three pieces of clothing will create a small microclimate to protect our body from the weather and our sweat, and avoid feeling uncomfortable.
Then we will name different types of textile fibers to be used in the manufacture of technical clothing according to the layer. If you want to know a little more about them click the link below textile fibers.
The following image shows the type of garment that is recommended in each of the layers.
dress the mountain
How to combine 3 layers of clothes to wear on the mountain
First layer / inner layer / Second Skin
It is the layer that is in contact with the skin. Its main function is our sweat away from the skin, avoiding the feeling of moisture and cool the body.
For this purpose compounds absorbing materials are used for synthetic fibers (such as polyester, polypropylene or chlorofibre) or wool new generation that miss all the sweat produced by our body. Note the difference in concept between non-absorbent and breathable, being not only breathable evacuate all liquid produced by our body. The new generation of fine wools have a more pleasant feel, removing much better than synthetic fabrics moisture when they are not very thick clothes and accumulating less odors. Conversely, synthetic fibers are cheaper and much faster drying, the most common being found on garments.
Some garments incorporating silver thread that prevents the accumulation of bacteria and odors, in addition to functioning as a good thermal regulator.
In this layer we must avoid cotton shirts soaked easily (can absorb four times its weight in water) and it takes a long time to dry.
Find items of different thicknesses also allow the body to keep warm (although this is not their primary function) and choose according to the temperature at which we are going to perform the activity and whether it is dynamic or static. We will not need the same thickness for a shirt for leggings, as the legs hold up much better low temperatures, especially if we are practicing an activity in which they are moving constantly, but need more thickness in a shirt when we make a way climbing is less dynamic than a march on foot.
clothing as possible to the body tight squeeze but to prevent the wind from penetrating between them and our body (we avoid convection cooling), and allow us to make movements without difficulty recommended. In the case of the T-shirts have zippered neck if we ventilarnos on occasion and with turtleneck that entertains us if cold.
Sometimes we find first not very thick layers and at the same time protect them from ultraviolet rays, as it may happen that the sun is overhead and the temperature is comfortable, allowing us to stay with the first layer only.
Within this layer we find the following clothes:
Second layer / insulation layer / coat coat
The function of the second layer is thermally isolate ourselves. These garments do not heat us directly, its mission is to retain the heat generated by the body and prevent cooling, while promoting the evacuation of sweat.
The idea is to use insulating materials even when wet get maintain its insulating properties and breathable intact. So we can find great variety of synthetic (polyester) and natural (wool) fibers perform this function in the market. As in the previous layer, the synthetic fibers have on their side that are less absorbent facilitating better breathability in addition to dry faster. Natural fibers only have the advantage that retain more heat, so it is usually mixed with synthetic fibers to improve their properties.
Polartec has become the most renowned synthetic fiber in the market, being used by many large mountain brands to make their clothes. We can find many types of fiber within this brand, but a classification that normally observe in garments made from Polartec is the thickness of the fiber in g / cm2, finding 100, 200 or 300 gr / cm2 and choose according to temperature which go to the activity.
Within the second layer we can find the following clothes:
Polar gloves, mittens and mitts.
Third layer / protective layer / outer layer
The function of this third layer is to protect three important factors: (1) external moisture (keep dry before the rain and snow – waterproof), (2) the wind outside (avoid the feeling of cold caused by the wind and low temperatures) and (3) of our sweat, allowing their evacuation as previous layers due have not hold (breathability).
We reiterate the importance of this last layer is as breathable as possible, because as we mentioned at the beginning, our own sweat soaked our clothes can cause us great discomfort and even hypothermia to cool down considerably.
Furthermore, this layer must be resistant to scratches, abrasion and tears, since being the outermost will be in contact with our material as a backpack, ice axes, ropes, etc; as well as rocks and branches of the place where we are.
In this layer we can find the following items:
Jackets waterproof membrane.
Pants with waterproof membrane.
Gloves with waterproof membrane.
Here we will describe some of these garments.
Jackets or pants with waterproof membrane are waterproof jackets and trousers with breathability. To achieve this special membranes are used designed with a smaller pores than any raindrop but larger than steam sweat, hence enabling protect us from rain and at the same time, our sweat perspire. The degree of impermeability of the membrane to be measured by the amount of the water column that will allow stand before puncturing the membrane. They can range from values ??of 1.500 mm to 10,000 mm. Therefore, a waterproof membrane will not get 100% prevent water from rain or snow can get to get wet. For that there are only plastic raincoats that get rain or snow does not wet us, but our sweat to not sweat a drop of our sweat.
Each clothing manufacturer opted for a type of waterproof membrane to make their garments. Most famous manufacturers membranes are: Gore-Tex, TEXTREM, Hyvent, Strata, etc.
The quality of a jacket or pants with waterproof membrane is not only if you use a membrane type or another, we must also look at the quality of its seams and zippers, as these must be heat-sealed to prevent drops water entering the holes that creates the thread to be sewn.
These jackets also protects us from the wind, preventing convection cooling would suffer to go only with the polar (second layer).
Windbreaks are jackets with a special fabric that allows wind to pass through not, but they are not waterproof. They are prepared to avoid a light rain or snow without losing fine properties, but before more water will come to penetrate the skin and calarnos. These garments are quite breathable.
The softshells are a mixture of polar and windbreaker, carrying inside a layer of fleece and coated outwardly tissue windbreaks. At the same time they avoid that the wind would cherish penetrate us and to keep the heat of our body. They are less breathable clothing that windbreaker and are not waterproof. Some include them in the second layer, but here we will include them as a protective layer, to spare us the wind.
Windbreaks and softshells are cheaper than jackets with waterproof membranes, it is our decision to use one type or another depending on the type of activity and weather conditions in which we are going to do. They could be used with a waterproof top in case of rain or snow, but we would have to assess the degree of waterproof breathability we use.
In short, the idea pursued by this theory have three garments only, each with a well-defined function, can combine according to the meteorological circumstances in which we find ourselves. For example, on a sunny day we would use only the first layer. If I started to run wind cool but we abrigaríamos with the second layer. If instead it begins to rain but the temperature is nice just have to put us over the third layer, leaving the second in the backpack. If conditions become too adverse, we would use the 3 layers at the same time. Knowing that in the first and second layers can find items of different thicknesses, and we must choose according to the temperatures and the type of activity we conduct.
This would apply to both the upper body and legs. Leg would use tights with pants trekkin if we do not expect rain or snow, although we could put us above a thin pants with waterproof membrane that we could carry in your backpack. We may also combine the meshes directly with a somewhat thicker pants with waterproof membrane, avoiding in this case additional trekkin pants.
In the case of gloves can also combine a finer thermal gloves, which will allow us to handle objects more accurately, with polar gloves or covering them mittens, in the case of much colder, with our handling of hands may be limited , especially with mitten, where it seeks to have the fingers joined together to give heat to each other, and supplementing it with gloves with waterproof membrane to prevent rain or snow.
Therefore, our common sense and our experiences will be to let us know as accurately choose the types of items that need to buy as well as choosing the right at all times.
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OW TO DRESS THE MOUNTAIN: THE 3-LAYER THEORY
For any action on the mountain we should pick a piece of clothing that keeps our body dry maintaining a strategic distance from both the buildup of our sweat as downpour and snow cale us, other than being protected to battle low temperatures. This is the place the hypothesis of the three layers emerges in that exclusive the mix of three bits of apparel will make a little microclimate to shield our body from the climate and our sweat, and abstain from feeling uncomfortable. The best thing about this hypothesis is that it can be connected to a game that we make, whether trekking, mountaineering, rock climbing, skiing, snowboarding, mountain biking, and so on; or notwithstanding motorcycling, as our point is to shield us from the climate.
Mountain dweller with numerous garments
Keep up our body temperature stable encourage the act of any game mountain we choose to make, in this manner, pick the fitting clothing to confront the assorted atmosphere that offers the mountain is a test since it drives us to be set up for the warmth, wind, downpour, snow, frosty temperatures and even our sweat.
At the point when playing out any oxygen consuming or anaerobic activity, the body expands your body temperature. The cooling instrument having body is transpiration, that is, dissipation of water through the skin, known as sweat. We will probably stay dry at all times, and this sweat can make our garments drench creating us a sentiment inconvenience and frosty much more regrettable than if we empapáramos as a result of the downpour. You can read more about the subject on warm sensation and causes heat misfortune.
Knowing this, we ought to pick apparel that keeps our body dry maintaining a strategic distance from both the buildup of our sweat as downpour and snow cale us, other than being protected to battle low temperatures. This is the place the hypothesis of the three layers emerges in that lone the mix of three bits of dress will make a little microclimate to shield our body from the climate and our sweat, and abstain from feeling uncomfortable.
At that point we will name distinctive sorts of material filaments to be utilized as a part of the production of specialized attire as indicated by the layer. On the off chance that you need to know somewhat more about them tap the connection beneath material filaments.
The accompanying picture demonstrates the sort of article of clothing that is suggested in each of the layers.
dress the mountain
Instructions to join 3 layers of garments to wear on the mountain
To begin with layer/inward layer/Second Skin
The layer is in contact with the skin. Its principle capacity is our sweat far from the skin, evading the sentiment dampness and cool the body.
For this reason mixes retaining materials are utilized for manufactured filaments, (for example, polyester, polypropylene or chlorofibre) or fleece new era that miss all the sweat delivered by our body. Note the distinction in idea between non-retentive and breathable, being not just breathable empty all fluid delivered by our body. The new era of fine fleeces have a more wonderful feel, expelling much superior to anything engineered fabrics dampness when they are not thick garments and amassing less scents. On the other hand, engineered filaments are less expensive and much quicker drying, the most widely recognized being found on pieces of clothing.
A few articles of clothing joining silver string that keeps the amassing of microbes and scents, notwithstanding working as a decent warm controller.
In this layer we should keep away from cotton shirts drenched effectively (can ingest four times its weight in water) and it takes quite a while to dry.
Discover things of various thicknesses likewise permit the body to keep warm (in spite of the fact that this is not their essential capacity) and pick as indicated by the temperature at which we are going to play out the action and whether it is dynamic or static. We won’t require the same thickness for a shirt for tights, as the legs hold up much better low temperatures, particularly in the event that we are rehearsing a movement in which they are moving always, however require more thickness in a shirt when we make a way climbing is less dynamic than a walk by walking.
garments as could be allowed to the body tight press however to keep the wind from infiltrating amongst them and our body (we maintain a strategic distance from convection cooling), and permit us to make developments without trouble prescribed. On account of the T-shirts have zippered neck on the off chance that we ventilarnos once in a while and with turtleneck that captivates us if cool.
Some of the time we discover first not thick layers and in the meantime shield them from bright beams, as it might happen that the sun is overhead and the temperature is open to, permitting us to stay with the primary layer as it were.
Inside this layer we locate the accompanying garments:
Second layer/protection layer/coat
The capacity of the second layer is thermally seclude ourselves. These pieces of clothing don’t warm us straightforwardly, its central goal is to hold the warmth created by the body and forestall cooling, while advancing the departure of sweat.
The thought is to utilize protecting materials notwithstanding when wet get keep up its protecting properties and breathable in place. So we can discover incredible assortment of engineered (polyester) and regular (fleece) strands play out this capacity in the business sector. As in the past layer, the engineered strands have on their side that are less retentive encouraging better breathability notwithstanding dry quicker. Normal strands just have the favorable position that hold more warmth, so it is typically blended with manufactured filaments to enhance their properties.
Polartec has turned into the most famous manufactured fiber in the business sector, being utilized by numerous vast mountain brands to make their garments. We can discover numerous sorts of fiber inside this brand, however a characterization that typically see in pieces of clothing produced using Polartec is the thickness of the fiber in g/cm2, discovering 100, 200 or 300 gr/cm2 and pick as indicated by temperature which go to the action.
Inside the second layer we can locate the accompanying garments:
Polar gloves, gloves and gloves.
Third layer/defensive layer/external layer
The capacity of this third layer is to secure three imperative components: (1) outer dampness (keep dry before the downpour and snow – waterproof), (2) the wind outside (maintain a strategic distance from the sentiment chilly brought on by the wind and low temperatures) and (3) of our sweat, permitting their clearing as past layers due have not hold (breathability).
We emphasize the significance of this last layer is as breathable as could be expected under the circumstances, on the grounds that as we said toward the starting, our own particular sweat doused our garments can bring about us extraordinary distress and even hypothermia to chill off significantly.
Moreover, this layer must be impervious to scratches, scraped spot and tears, subsequent to being the furthest will be in contact with our material as a knapsack, ice tomahawks, ropes, and so forth; and in addition shakes and branches of the spot where we are.
In this layer we can locate the accompanying things:
Coats waterproof layer.
Pants with waterproof layer.
Gloves with waterproof layer.
Here we will portray some of these articles of clothing.
Coats or jeans with waterproof layer are waterproof coats and trousers with breathability. To accomplish this extraordinary layers are utilized planned with a littler pores than any raindrop however bigger than steam sweat, thus empowering shield us from downpour and in the meantime, our sweat. The level of impermeability of the layer to be measured by the measure of the water section that will permit stand before puncturing the film. They can extend from qualities ??of 1.500 mm to 10,000 mm. Along these lines, a waterproof film won’t get 100% keep water from downpour or snow can get the chance to get wet. For that there are just plastic overcoats that get rain or snow does not wet us, but rather our sweat to not sweat a drop of our sweat.
Every dress maker settled on a sort of waterproof layer to make their pieces of clothing. Most well known makers films are: Gore-Tex, TEXTREM, Hyvent, Strata, and so forth.
The nature of a coat or jeans with waterproof film is not just on the off chance that you utilize a layer sort or another, we should likewise take a gander at the nature of its creases and zippers, as these must be warmth fixed to avoid drops water entering the gaps that makes the string to be sewn.
These coats additionally shields us from the wind, avoiding convection cooling would endure to run just with the polar (second layer).
Windbreaks are coats with a unique fabric that permits wind to go through not, but rather they are not waterproof. They are set up to keep away from a light rain or snow without losing fine properties, however before more water will come to infiltrate the skin and calarnos. These pieces of clothing are entirely breathable.
The softshells are a blend of polar and jacket, conveying inside a layer of downy and covered ostensibly tissue windbreaks. In the meantime they stay away from that the wind would esteem infiltrate us and to keep the warmth of our body. They are less breathable garments that coat and are not waterproof. Some incorporate them in the second layer, yet here we will incorporate them as a defensive layer, to extra us the wind.
Windbreaks and softshells are less expensive than coats with waterproof layers, it is our choice to utilize some write contingent upon the sort of movement and climate conditions in which we are going to do. They could be utilized with a waterproof top as a part of instance of downpour or snow, however we would need to survey the level of waterproof breathability we utilize.
To put it plainly, the thought sought after by this hypothesis have three articles of clothing just, each with an all around characterized capacity, can consolidate as indicated by the meteorological circumstances in which we get ourselves. For instance, on a sunny day we would utilize just the principal layer. In the event that I began to run wind cool however we abrigaríamos with the second layer. In the event that rather it starts to rain however the temperature is pleasant simply need to put us over the third layer, leaving the second in the rucksack. On the off chance that conditions turn out to be too promotion
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